A paver patio with a river-stone border will enhance your backyard beautifully. The stones used for the border add a decorative element to the design and serve to integrate the patio into the surrounding lawn.
This patio measures 10'x 11' and is surrounded by a 12" inner border of river stones and a 12" outer border of paving slabs, making a total surface area of 12'x 13'.
We strongly recommend you keep a number of pavers and slabs for replacement purposes. If possible, store them outside so they age and weather at the same rate as those on the patio.
1.1. Verify if any conduits or wires are located in the area to be graded. If so, contact the representatives of the companies concerned. If in doubt, contact your municipality.
1.2. With pickets and string, mark the boundaries of the area to be graded. This area is the total surface area of the patio plus an additional 12" on all sides, i.e. 14' x 15', to ensure the stability of the paving.
1.3. Check that all the corners are square using the 3-4-5 rule: on one side of a corner, measure 3' (36") from the corner and make a mark; then on the opposite side of the corner, measure 4' (48") from the corner and make a mark. Next, measure diagonally between the two marks. If the distance is 5' (60"), the corner is square.
1.4. Repeat this procedure for the three remaining corners and make adjustments if necessary.
2.1. Cut out a 12" strip of turf all around the patio following the string line. Roll up the turf and set it aside.
2.2. Remove the rest of the grass.
For sandy soil, grading should be a minimum of 8 7/8", and the minimum foundation thickness 6" (0-3/4" crushed stone). For a clay soil, garading should be a minimum of 11", and the minimum foundation thickness 8". In both cases, the thickness of uncompacted installation bed (stone dust) should be between 5/8" and 1".
3.1. Grade the entire surface
3.2. To ensure adequate drainage, grade the soil to obtain a minimum incline of 2%, or ¼" per linear foot.
3.3. Level the bottom with a rake. If the soil is sandy or granular, compact it with a vibrating plate or roller. Do not pack clay soil at this stage.
3.4. Lay a geotextile membrane between the natural soil and the foundation in order to prevent contamination of the foundation and to ensure greater stability.
4.1. Spread and compact the ¾" stone in 4" layers with a vibrating plate or roller. Lightly water the stone to make tamping easier. To ensure an adequate foundation, compact the stone several times.
4.2. Spread between 5/8" and 1" of concrete sand or stone dust on the foundation.
4.3. Level using two 1" diameter pipes and a straight plank that will slide on both pipes. Any significant variation in bed thickness may cause irregularities in the paved surface. Do not compact the sand before laying the slabs.
4.4. Fill in the empty space left by the pipes as you go.
5.1. Move the pickets and string inwards to mark the boundary of the inner patio area (10' x 11'), again checking that all four corners are square.
5.2. Lay the slabs directly on the stone dust starting in an angle, row by row. Proceed by walking on the slabs.
5.3. Verify the alignment of the slabs every five rows installed and adjust if necessary.
5.4. Continue the installation until the complete interior surface is covered.
5.5. Surround the paved surface with plastic anchor to maintain slabs straight and tight. Anchor the nails in the foundation. Count one nail per foot.
5.6. Lay the outer border of 12" paving slabs around the inner patio area, using a template such as a square of plywood to ensure regular and even spacing.
5.7. Install plastic edging around the outer edge of the paved border.
6.1. Spread polymeric sand over the slabs and work it into the joints by brushing in all directions. Remove excess sand and water.
6.2. Fill the space between the patio and the paved border with river stones.
6.3. Replace the strip of turf around the outside of the pavers, adding soil if necessary. Water the turf.